Effective Specific Interventions


As well as general programmes to improve the effectiveness of teachers and schools, there have been specific interventions that are targeted at specific groups of children or types of school. This section contains information on the more useful of them.

Publications and Resources:

Muijs D & Reynolds D (2003) 'Student background and teacher effects on achievement and attainment in mathematics: a longitudinal study' in Educational Research and Evaluation, Vol. 9(3), pp. 289-314

This paper investigates the relationship between student social background, classroom social context, classroom organisation, teacher behaviours and mathematics achievement and attainment in English and Welsh primary schools.

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Reynolds D (1998) 'Schooling for literacy: a review of research on teacher effectiveness and school effectiveness and its implications for contemporary educational policies', in Educational Review, Vol. 50(2), pp. 147-162 - http://www.tandf.co.uk

This paper outlines the educational policies concerned with literacy, teacher effectiveness and school effectiveness, and discusses ways to make them work.

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Reynolds D & Muijs D (1998) 'Numeracy Matters: Contemporary policy issues in the teaching of mathematics', a Department for Education and Employment Report, London: DfEE

This paper aims to outline the history of the controversies about the teaching of mathematics and standards of mathematics achievement in schools, and particularly to outline the research and practice evidence that was gathered during the work of the Numeracy Task Force.

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Reynolds D & Muijs D (1999) ‘The effective teaching of mathematics – a review of research’, in School Leadership and Management, Vol. 19(3), pp. 273-288 - http://www.tandf.co.uk

This paper outlines the three bodies of knowledge that are in general agreement about the characteristics of the effective teaching of mathematics.

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Slavin R (2003) 'Success for all in England: implementation and outcomes of a comprehensive literacy reform for primary schools', unpublished paper.

This paper discusses a comprehensive programme for reading instruction called 'Success For All'.  This programme was designed for schools serving many children who are in poverty and uses strategies known from research to contribute to children's learning to ensure that children begin with success in the earliest school years and then build on this success throughout their time in primary school.

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Stringfield S, Datnow, A, Herman R & Berkeley C (1997) 'Introduction to the Memphis restructuring initiative', in School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 3-35 

This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to the Memphis restructuring initiative, outlining the reasons for its creation, its aims and its advantageous features against other such such projects. 

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Stringfield S & Ross S (1997) 'A 'reflection' at mile three of a marathon: the Memphis restructuring initiative in mid-stride', in School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 151-161

This paper draws conclusions from observations from the first year of the Memphis restructuring project.

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Dr. Schaffer's powerpoint presentation:

Gender Based Education

This presentation explores the presence and affects of gender bias in education. It further examines the learning benefits pupils experience at single gender schools and discusses the possibility of gender grouping for the teaching of specific age groups.

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